The Growth of Jakarta Metropolitan Area and the Sustainability of Urban Development in Indonesia

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Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia and the largest metropolitan in Southeast Asia with tremendous rate of population growth and wide range of urban problems. The overall population of Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA) increased 140 times in the 20th century, from about 100,000 in 1900 to more than 14 million in 2005.

Some studies (Firman, 1998; Leaf, 1994; Cybriwsky and Ford, 2001) revealed that many moderate and high-income families moved out from the central city to the peripheral areas. They were attracted by high quality amenities provided by suburban enclave housing. In addition, the poor native Jakarta was relocated to the fringe areas because of the expansion of formal sector in the central city.

The population growth of JMA corresponds with the increasing Jakarta’s dominance in Indonesia’s economy and urban system. Indonesia's economy has been growing at about 6 percent a year and Jakarta has been Indonesia's primary growth machine. Jakarta is a primate city that plays dominant role in many respects in Indonesia. Jakarta becomes a high concentration of urban population and plays as political, economical, cultural and transportation center of Indonesia.

This paper examines the extent to which the growth of JMA and the dominance of Jakarta in Indonesia’s economy and urban system have affected the sustainability of urban development in Indonesia. This paper assesses whether Jakarta is able to accommodate the rapid population growth and to generate positive externalities from its growth to other parts of Indonesia.

The analyses include urbanization and suburbanization in JMA, Jakarta as Indonesia’s primate city, Jakarta’s contribution to Indonesia’s economy and the sustainability of Jakarta. The sustainability of Jakarta is assessed from the most current flood that hit Jakarta in February 2007 and the land subsidence in Jakarta.


Keywords: Urban Development, Sustainability, Jakarta, Indonesia
Stream: Environmental Sustainability
Presentation Type: Virtual Presentation in English
Paper: , Growth of Jakarta Metropolitan Area and the Sustainability of Urban Development in Indonesia, The


Dr. Deden Rukmana

Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Public Administration, and Urban Studies, Savannah State University
Savannah, GA, USA

Deden Rukmana is an assistant professor of urban studies at Savannah State University, USA. He received his PhD in Urban and Regional Planning from Florida State University. His prior graduate studies include master's degrees in Development Studies from the Bandung Institute of Technology in 1997 and in Planning and Development Studies from the University of Southern California in 2001. Prior to joining the Savannah State University, he worked as a planning analyst with the Division of Community Planning of the Florida Department of Community Affairs in Tallahassee, Florida. He had been involved in several research-funded projects such as Community Outreach Partnership Program; Development of Outcome Measurement Systems for Florida's Homeless Program; and Health, Infrastructure and Physical Activity. His primary research interests include homelessness and poverty, Geographic Information Systems, spatial analysis, housing and community development, and international planning.

Ref: S08P0247