The Growth of Jakarta Metropolitan Area and the Sustainability of Urban Development in Indonesia
Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia and the largest metropolitan in Southeast Asia with tremendous rate of population growth and wide range of urban problems. The overall population of Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA) increased 140 times in the 20th century, from about 100,000 in 1900 to more than 14 million in 2005.
Some studies (Firman, 1998; Leaf, 1994; Cybriwsky and Ford, 2001) revealed that many moderate and high-income families moved out from the central city to the peripheral areas. They were attracted by high quality amenities provided by suburban enclave housing. In addition, the poor native Jakarta was relocated to the fringe areas because of the expansion of formal sector in the central city.
The population growth of JMA corresponds with the increasing Jakarta’s dominance in Indonesia’s economy and urban system. Indonesia's economy has been growing at about 6 percent a year and Jakarta has been Indonesia's primary growth machine. Jakarta is a primate city that plays dominant role in many respects in Indonesia. Jakarta becomes a high concentration of urban population and plays as political, economical, cultural and transportation center of Indonesia.
This paper examines the extent to which the growth of JMA and the dominance of Jakarta in Indonesia’s economy and urban system have affected the sustainability of urban development in Indonesia. This paper assesses whether Jakarta is able to accommodate the rapid population growth and to generate positive externalities from its growth to other parts of Indonesia.
The analyses include urbanization and suburbanization in JMA, Jakarta as Indonesia’s primate city, Jakarta’s contribution to Indonesia’s economy and the sustainability of Jakarta. The sustainability of Jakarta is assessed from the most current flood that hit Jakarta in February 2007 and the land subsidence in Jakarta.
Keywords: Urban Development, Sustainability, Jakarta, Indonesia
Dr. Deden Rukmana
Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Public Administration, and Urban Studies, Savannah State University