Urbanization, Slums and Indoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries: A Major Environmental and Public Health
The most important reasons for population explosion in the cities of developing countries like India is rapid urbanization. Urbanization in India is accompanied by a number of challenges arising from population concentration in metropolitan cities; environmental degradation has occurring very rapidly and causing shortage of basic needs. Worsening water quality, air pollution and problems of disposal solid wastes and hazardous. As per 2001 census, about 61.5% of the India’s urban population of 285 million lived in class I towns. About 38% concentrated in the 35 metropolitan cities. These cities are confronted with a seemingly in mushrooming of slums. Slums have become an in evitable part of the major Indian metropolises. The situations in metropolises like Mumbai, Kolkatta, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderbad and Kanpur etc, becoming worse year by year. Poverty is the agents and victims of environmental degradation. Indoor air pollution problems may result in adverse health hazard increased medical costs and loss of production. In poor communities with the continuing trend in bio fuel combustion coupled with deteriorating housing condition. These bio fuels are typically burnt in simple stoves with very incomplete combustion. Consequently, women and young children are exposed to high levels of Indoor air pollutions everyday. There is consistent evidence that Indoor air pollution increase the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and of acute respiratory infections in child hood, the most important cause of death among children under 5 years of age in developing countries like India. The study describes Indoor air pollution in slums (Bangalore Agglomeration, Karnataka, India). The primary survey was conducted through the questionnaire and random sampling techniques. The study reveals that indoor air pollution is particularly hazardous for women and children and low income house holds who are regularly exposed to higher concentration. The rehabilitation program of the Karnataka Slum Clearance Board in totally inadequate in relation to the mushroom growth of slums. Hence a comprehensive package incorporating measures to improve urban environment and health status should be launched on a massive scale.
Keywords: Poverty, Air Pollution, Indoor Adverse Effects, Urbanization, Slums, Lung Diseases, Inhalation Injury
Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering, SJCIT
Professor in Civil Engg, PES College of Engg